Sunday, July 29, 2012

Right Diet: to combat obesity



Adolescent obesity is a growing public health problem in Kuwait. In the study of fourteen obese adolescent boys volunteered to participate in a 6-month multidimensional television series on weight loss, found that type of television series could be used as a model for future public health programs to prevent and control obesity among adolescents(1).

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(1) "Right Diet: a television series to combat obesity among adolescents in Kuwait" by Al-Haifi AR, Al-Fayez MA, Al-Nashi B, Al-Athari BI, Bawadi H, Musaiger AO.

Saturday, July 28, 2012

Weight loss, exercise, or both and physical function in obese older adults



In a 1-year, randomized, controlled trial evaluation of the independent and combined effects of weight loss and exercise in 107 adults who were 65 years of age or older and obese, indicated that body weight decreased by 10% in the diet group and by 9% in the diet-exercise group, but did not decrease in the exercise group or the control group (P<0.001). Lean body mass and bone mineral density at the hip decreased less in the diet-exercise group than in the diet group (reductions of 3% and 1%, respectively, in the diet-exercise group vs. reductions of 5% and 3%, respectively, in the diet group; P<0.05 for both comparisons). Strength, balance, and gait improved consistently in the diet-exercise group (P<0.05 for all comparisons). Adverse events included a small number of exercise-associated musculoskeletal injuries(1).

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(1) "Weight loss, exercise, or both and physical function in obese older adults? by Villareal DT, Chode S, Parimi N, Sinacore DR, Hilton T, Armamento-Villareal R, Napoli N, Qualls C, Shah K.

Friday, July 27, 2012

Screening and Interventions for Childhood Overweight



In the study to to examine the evidence for the benefits and harms of screening and earlier treatment of overweight in children and adolescents in clinical settings, researchers found that BMI measurement to detect overweight in older adolescents could identify those at increased risk of developing adult obesity, and its consequent morbidities. Promising interventions to address overweight adolescents in clinical settings are beginning to be reported but are not yet proven to have clinically significant benefits; nor are they widely available. Screening for the purposes of overweight categorization in children under age 12 to 13 who are not clearly overweight may not provide reliable risk categorization for adult obesity. Theoretical harms may occur from overweight labeling or from induced individual and parental concern. Screening approaches are further compromised by the fact that there is little generalizable evidence for interventions that can be conducted in primary care or are widely available for primary care referral. Despite this, the fact that many trials report short- to medium-term modest improvements (approximately 10%–20% decrease in percent overweight or a few units' change in BMI) suggests that overweight improvements in children and adolescents are possible. Experts have identified pragmatic clinical recommendations for lifestyle changes that could be applied to all children and adolescents regardless of risk. While monitoring growth and development in children and adolescents through BMI documentation at visits is prudent, care should be taken not to unnecessarily label children and adolescents as overweight or at risk for overweight until more is known about BMI as a risk factor, and effective interventions are available(1).


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(1) "Screening and Interventions for Childhood Overweight [Internet]". by Whitlock EP, Williams SB, Gold R, Smith P, Shipman S.

Thursday, July 26, 2012

Screening and Interventions for Overweight and Obesity in Adults



In the study to examine the evidence of the benefits and harms of screening and earlier treatment in reducing morbidity and mortality from overweight and obesity, showed that Screening with BMI would detect a large percentage of adults who are obese or overweight. Limited evidence suggests that counseling interventions may promote modest weight loss in the overweight (BMI 25–29.9). Effective treatments for people with BMI >30 include intensive counseling and behavioral interventions for lifestyle change, and pharmacotherapy. Surgery is effective in reducing weight for people with BMI of 35 or greater. Adverse effects include increased blood pressure and gastrointestinal distress with drugs and a small percentage of serious side effects with surgery(1).


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(1) "Screening and Interventions for Overweight and Obesity in Adults [Internet]" by McTigue K, Harris R, Hemphill MB, Bunton AJ, Lux LJ, Sutton S, Lohr KN.

Wednesday, July 25, 2012

Dieting status and its relationship to eating and physical activity behaviors



In the study to determine whether adolescents engaging in extreme weight loss methods (i.e., vomiting and diet pills) and those using more moderate methods differ from each other in dietary intake (fruits, vegetables, and higher-fat foods) and physical activity, and to compare these variables in dieting and nondieting adolescents, showed that the importance of distinguishing between different types of dieting behaviors in clinical settings and research studies. Adolescents engaging in extreme weight control behaviors may be at particular risk for inadequate nutritional intake. In contrast, adolescents using more moderate methods may be consuming a more healthful diet than are nondieters. For all adolescents, nutrition guidance on healthful and safe weight control strategies is needed(1).


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(1) "Dieting status and its relationship to eating and physical activity behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents" by Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D, Sherwood N, Stang J, Murray D.

Tuesday, July 24, 2012

Obesity, disordered eating, and eating disorders



In the study to determine if adolescents who report dieting and different weight-control behaviors are at increased or decreased risk for gains in body mass index, overweight status, binge eating, extreme weight-control behaviors, and eating disorders 5 years later. indicated that Dieting and unhealthful weight-control behaviors predict outcomes related to obesity and eating disorders 5 years later. A shift away from dieting and drastic weight-control measures toward the long-term implementation of healthful eating and physical activity behaviors is needed to prevent obesity and eating disorders in adolescents(1).

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(1) "Obesity, disordered eating, and eating disorders in a longitudinal study of adolescents: how do dieters fare 5 years later?" by  Neumark-Sztainer D, Wall M, Guo J, Story M, Haines J, Eisenberg M.

Monday, July 23, 2012

Family meals and disordered eating



In the study to examine 5-year longitudinal associations between family meal frequency and disordered eating behaviors in adolescents, researchers showed that the high prevalence of disordered eating behaviors among adolescent girls and the protective role of family meals suggest a need for interventions aimed at promoting family meals. Further exploration of predictors of disordered eating behaviors in adolescent boys and the role of family meals is warranted(1).

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(1) "Family meals and disordered eating in adolescents: longitudinal findings from project EAT" by Neumark-Sztainer D, Eisenberg ME, Fulkerson JA, Story M, Larson NI.

Sunday, July 22, 2012

Shared risk and protective factors for overweight and disordered eating



In the review of data collected at Time 1 (1998-1999) and Time 2 (2003-2004) on 2516 adolescents participating in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Data were analyzed in 2006-2007, showed that Weight-specific socioenvironmental, personal, and behavioral variables are strong and consistent predictors of overweight status, binge eating, and extreme weight-control behaviors later in adolescence. These findings support the need for research to determine if decreasing weight-related social pressures, personal weight concerns, and unhealthy weight-control behaviors can contribute to reductions in obesity in children and adolescents(1).

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(1) "Shared risk and protective factors for overweight and disordered eating in adolescents" by Neumark-Sztainer DR, Wall MM, Haines JI, Story MT, Sherwood NE, van den Berg PA.

Saturday, July 21, 2012

Family support and weight-loss

 In the study to to describe the weight-control strategies and family support for young people reporting sustained weight loss in a large, population-based sample, found that Approximately 50 % of young people attempting weight loss reported sustained weight loss. Young people who reported sustained weight loss appeared to have more family support than those who did not achieve this, suggesting the importance for weight-control services and interventions in adolescents of actively engaging the family(1)


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(1) "Family support and weight-loss strategies among adolescents reporting sustained weight loss" by

Friday, July 20, 2012

Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain



Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), particularly carbonated soft drinks, may be a key contributor to the epidemic of overweight and obesity, by virtue of these beverages' high added sugar conten. Researchers at the , Harvard School of Public Health, showed that a school-based intervention found significantly less soft-drink consumption and prevalence of obese and overweight children in the intervention group than in control subjects after 12 mo, and a recent 25-week randomized controlled trial in adolescents found further evidence linking SSB intake to body weight. The weight of epidemiologic and experimental evidence indicates that a greater consumption of SSBs is associated with weight gain and obesity. Although more research is needed, sufficient evidence exists for public health strategies to discourage consumption of sugary drinks as part of a healthy lifestyle(1).

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(1) " Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review" by Malik VS, Schulze MB, Hu FB.

Thursday, July 19, 2012

Reduction in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with weight loss



In the study  to examine how changes in beverage consumption affect weight change among adults, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, showed that baseline mean intake of liquid calories was 356 kcal/d (19% of total energy intake). After potential confounders and intervention assignment were controlled for, a reduction in liquid calorie intake of 100 kcal/d was associated with a weight loss of 0.25 kg (95% CI: 0.11, 0.39; P < 0.001) at 6 mo and of 0.24 kg (95% CI: 0.06, 0.41; P = 0.008) at 18 mo. A reduction in liquid calorie intake had a stronger effect than did a reduction in solid calorie intake on weight loss. Of the individual beverages, only intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) was significantly associated with weight change. A reduction in SSB intake of 1 serving/d was associated with a weight loss of 0.49 kg (95% CI: 0.11, 0.82; P = 0.006) at 6 mo and of 0.65 kg (95% CI: 0.22, 1.09; P = 0.003) at 18 mo(1).

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(1) "Reduction in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with weight loss: the PREMIER trial" vy Chen L, Appel LJ, Loria C, Lin PH, Champagne CM, Elmer PJ, Ard JD, Mitchell D, Batch BC, Svetkey LP, Caballero B.

Wednesday, July 18, 2012

Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss



In the study to compare the replacement of caloric beverages with water or diet beverages (DBs) as a method of weight loss over 6 mo in adults and attention controls (ACs), researchers at the The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, showed that Replacement of caloric beverages with noncaloric beverages as a weight-loss strategy resulted in average weight losses of 2% to 2.5%. This strategy could have public health significance and is a simple, straightforward message. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01017783(1).

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(1) " Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in adults: main results of the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial" by Tate DF, Turner-McGrievy G, Lyons E, Stevens J, Erickson K, Polzien K, Diamond M, Wang X, Popkin B.

Tuesday, July 17, 2012

Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes

In recent decades, temporal patterns in SSB intake have shown a close parallel between the upsurge in obesity and rising levels of SSB consumption. SSBs are beverages that contain added caloric sweeteners such as sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup or fruit-juice concentrates, all of which result in similar metabolic effects, researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health, indicated that Experimental studies have provided important insight into potential underlying biological mechanisms. It is thought that SSBs contribute to weight gain in part by incomplete compensation for energy at subsequent meals following intake of liquid calories. They may also increase risk of T2DM and CVD as a contributor to a high dietary glycemic load leading to inflammation, insulin resistance and impaired beta-cell function. Additional metabolic effects from the fructose fraction of these beverages may also promote accumulation of visceral adiposity, and increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis, and hypertension due to hyperuricemia. Consumption of SSBs should therefore be replaced by healthy alternatives such as water, to reduce risk of obesity and chronic diseases(1).

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(1) "Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: epidemiologic evidence" by Hu FB, Malik VS.

Monday, July 16, 2012

Dietary intervention and vasomotor symptoms

In the study to determine whether a dietary intervention designed to reduce fat intake and increase intake of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains, and weight loss, reduces vasomotor symptoms (VMS; ie, hot flashes or night sweats) in postmenopausal women, research indicated in multivariate-adjusted analyses, with simultaneous adjustment for the intervention and weight change, assignment to the dietary intervention versus the control arm was significantly (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01-1.28) related to a higher likelihood of symptom elimination among women with VMS at baseline. In addition, women with symptoms at baseline who lost 10 lb or more (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05-1.46) or lost 10% or more of their baseline body weight (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.21-2.02) between baseline and year 1 were significantly more likely to eliminate VMS compared with those who maintained weight. Upon examining the joint effect of the dietary modification and weight loss, compared with women in the control arm who maintained weight, women who lost substantial weight (≥10%) as a part of the intervention (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.39-2.57) but not as part of the control arm (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.92-2.13) were significantly more likely to end VMS, although these two groups did not differ significantly from each other. Large weight loss (>22 lb), but not dietary changes, was related to the elimination of moderate/severe VMS(1).


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(1) "Effects of a dietary intervention and weight change on vasomotor symptoms in the Women's Health Initiative|" by Kroenke CH, Caan BJ, Stefanick ML, Anderson G, Brzyski R, Johnson KC, Leblanc E, Lee C, La Croix AZ, Park HL, Sims ST, Vitolins M, Wallace R.

Sunday, July 15, 2012

Alternative Medicine for Weight Loss Among Mexican-American Women



In the study to examine the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for weight loss among Mexican-American women. Cross-sectional survey of different CAM modalities, including traditional Mexican medicine therapies, showed that most respondents reported using some form of CAM for weight loss, with most reporting using herbs and teas (70 %), home remedies (61 %) and massage (55 %). Mexican-American women report using a wide range of CAM therapies for weight loss. Understanding their patterns of use will enhance cultural competence of health care professionals and help address their medical needs(1).

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(1) "Use of Alternative Medicine for Weight Loss Among Mexican-American Women" by Lindberg NM, Stevens VJ, Elder C, Funk K, Debar L.

Saturday, July 14, 2012

Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes



Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which include soft drinks, fruit drinks, iced tea, and energy and vitamin water drinks has risen across the globe. Regular consumption of SSBs has been associated with weight gain and risk of overweight and obesity, but the role of SSBs in the development of related chronic metabolic diseases. Researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health found that in addition to weight gain, higher consumption of SSBs is associated with development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. These data provide empirical evidence that intake of SSBs should be limited to reduce obesity-related risk of chronic metabolic diseases(1).

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(1) "Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis" by Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA, Despr├ęs JP, Willett WC, Hu FB.

Friday, July 13, 2012

Soft drink and juice consumption and risk of physician-diagnosed incident type 2 diabetes



Soft drinks and other sweetened beverages may contribute to risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. researchers at the University of Minnesota in the examination of the association between soft drinks and juice and the risk of type 2 diabetes among Chinese Singaporeans enrolled in a prospective cohort study of 43,580 participants aged 45-74 years and free of diabetes and other chronic diseases at baseline, indicated that after adjustment for potential lifestyle and dietary confounders, participants consuming > or =2 soft drinks per week had a relative risk of type 2 diabetes of 1.42 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 1.62) compared with those who rarely consumed soft drinks. Similarly, consumption of > or =2 juice beverages per week was associated with an increased risk (relative risk (RR) = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.58). The association was modified by 5-year weight gain for > or =2 soft drinks per week among those who gained > or =3 kg (RR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.16) compared with those who gained less weight (RR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.41)(1).

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(1) "Soft drink and juice consumption and risk of physician-diagnosed incident type 2 diabetes: the Singapore Chinese Health Study" by Odegaard AO, Koh WP, Arakawa K, Yu MC, Pereira MA.

Wednesday, July 11, 2012

Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes


In the study to  examine the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight change and risk of type 2 diabetes in women, found that those with stable consumption patterns had no difference in weight gain, but weight gain over a 4-year period was highest among women who increased their sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption from 1 or fewer drinks per week to 1 or more drinks per day (multivariate-adjusted means, 4.69 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 4.20 kg for 1995 to 1999) and was smallest among women who decreased their intake (1.34 and 0.15 kg for the 2 periods, respectively) after adjusting for lifestyle and dietary confounders. Increased consumption of fruit punch was also associated with greater weight gain compared with decreased consumption. After adjustment for potential confounders, women consuming 1 or more sugar-sweetened soft drinks per day had a relative risk [RR] of type 2 diabetes of 1.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-2.36; P<.001 for trend) compared with those who consumed less than 1 of these beverages per month. Similarly, consumption of fruit punch was associated with increased diabetes risk (RR for > or =1 drink per day compared with <1 drink per month, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.33-3.03; P =.001).(1).

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(1) "Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women" by Schulze MB, Manson JE, Ludwig DS, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Hu FB.

Friday, July 6, 2012

Exercise attenuates the weight-loss-induced reduction in muscle mass in frail obese older adults



In the study to evaluate the effect of adding exercise to a hypocaloric diet on changes in appendicular lean mass and strength in frail obese older adults undergoing voluntary weight loss, found that exercise added to diet reduces muscle mass loss during voluntary weight loss and increases muscle strength in frail obese older adults. Regular exercise that incorporates PRT should be used to attenuate muscle mass loss in frail obese older adults on weight-loss therapy(1).

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(1) "Exercise attenuates the weight-loss-induced reduction in muscle mass in frail obese older adults" by Frimel TN, Sinacore DR, Villareal DT.

Wednesday, July 4, 2012

Exercise but not diet-induced weight loss decreases skeletal muscle inflammatory gene expression




In a study to evaluated 12 wk of exercise (aerobic and resistance) or 12 wk of weight loss (approximately 7% reduction) on skeletal muscle mRNAs for toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), mechanogrowth factor (MGF), TNF-alpha, and IL-6 in 16 obese (body mass index 38+/-2 kg/m2) older (69+/-1 yr) physically frail individuals, indicated that exercise but not weight loss had a beneficial effect on markers of muscle inflammation and anabolism in frail obese elderly individuals(1).

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(1) "Exercise but not diet-induced weight loss decreases skeletal muscle inflammatory gene expression in frail obese elderly persons" by Lambert CP, Wright NR, Finck BN, Villareal DT.

Tuesday, July 3, 2012

Sarcopenic obesity in the elderly and strategies for weight management



Sarcopenic obesity in the elderly is associated with a loss of independence and metabolic complications and represents a major public health challenge in individuals over the age of 65 years. Dr. Li Z,  and Dr. Heber D. at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, said that tt is likely that age-related losses of muscle mass and coincident increases in fat mass could be reduced through regular resistance exercise combined with adequate protein intake to maintain muscle mass. It has been established that increased protein intake will maintain muscle mass during calorie-restricted diets to a greater extent than usual protein intake. Other strategies, including the use of high-protein meal replacements or supplementation with specific ergogenic or branched-chain amino acids, may be beneficial(1).

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(1) "Sarcopenic obesity in the elderly and strategies for weight management" by Li Z, Heber D.

Monday, July 2, 2012

Relationship between antioxidant intakes and class I sarcopenia



In the study of the effect of nutritional intake on sarcopenia has been mostly examined in class II sarcopenia, i.e. when muscle mass has sufficiently decreased to induce a loss in physical capacity, showed that although there were no significant differences between the sarcopenic and the non-sarcopenic group when antioxidant intakes were considered individually, we observed that the number of RDAs reached for antioxidant micronutrients and protein in healthy, older white men and women was lower in sarcopenic than nonsarcopenic individuals. Our results also suggest that a higher total dietary protein intake is associated with the preservation of muscle mass loss although both groups displayed values above actual RDAs. Obviously, prospective studies are needed to determine the minimum amount of protein in the diet needed to prevent class I sarcopenia and to examine the utility of antioxidant intake to combat the age-related loss in skeletal muscle mass(1).

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(1)" Relationship between antioxidant intakes and class I sarcopenia in elderly men and women" by Chaput JP, Lord C, Cloutier M, Aubertin Leheudre M, Goulet ED, Rousseau S, Khalil A, Dionne IJ.

Physical activity, protein intake, and appendicular skeletal muscle mass in older men



In the study of the maintenance of physical activity and dietary protein intake would attenuate the age-related decline in total appendicular skeletal muscle mass, indicated that Aging was inversely associated with total appendicular skeletal muscle mass in older men (r = -0.43; slope: -0. 119 +/- 0.039 kg/y; P < 0.01). An effect of age on appendicular skeletal muscle mass persisted after standing height and physical activity were controlled for (r = -0.34; slope: -0.120 +/- 0.052 kg/y; P = 0.03). Furthermore, an effect of age on appendicular skeletal muscle mass persisted after standing height and dietary protein intake per kilogram body mass was controlled for (r = -0.41; slope: -0.127 +/- 0.045 kg/y; P < 0.01)(1).

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(1) "Physical activity, protein intake, and appendicular skeletal muscle mass in older men" by Starling RD, Ades PA, Poehlman ET.